RESISTOR GLOSSARY

Resistor Glossary: A ~ C

Ambient Operating Temperature
The temperature of the air surrounding an object, neglecting small localized variations.


Ampere (A, amp)
Unit of measure for electrical current.


Bulk Resistor
A resistor made by providing ohmic contacts between two points of a homogenous, uniformly doped material.


Chip Resistor
A small rectangular resistor chip used in hybrid integrated circuits and available in either thick film or thin film construction.


Circuit
An interconnection of components that forms a complete path for the controlled flow of electrical current.


Clean Room
A special manufacturing area where the air is filtered to remove dust particles and precautionary measures are used to keep contamination away from the unprotected circuit during processing.


Critical Resistance Value
The maximum nominal resistance value at which the rated power can be loaded without exceeding the maximum working voltage. The rated voltage is equal to the maximum working voltage in the critical resistance value.


Current (unit Amp)
Flow of electrons, measured in amperes. One ampere will flow when one volt is provided to a circuit which has a resistance of one ohm. The rate of the flow of electrons in the circuit.

Resistor Glossary: D ~ H

Derating
At ambient temperatures higher than the maximum specified for full rated power, a reduced amount of power is allowable in the resistor. The allowable amount is shown in derating curves which normally end at zero power at the maximum surface temperature applicable to the resistor type.


Derating Curve
The curve that expresses the relation between the ambient temperature and the maximum value of continuously loadable power at its temperature, which is generally expressed in percentage.


Dielectric Strength
The maximum voltage of the dielectric or insulation of a resistor or potentiometer applied between the case and all terminals connected to each other, without exceeding a specified leakage current.


Dielectric Withstanding Voltage
A.C. voltage (commercial frequency effective value) that can be applied to a designated spot between the electrode and the outer coating for a minute in the dielectric withstanding voltage test. (JIS C 5201-1 4.7)


Discrete Resistors
Resistors that have a single resistive element per component.


Film Resistor
A fixed resistor relying on film properties of resistance material rather than bulk properties.


Fixed Resistors
Resistors that have a specified resistance value that does not change.


Flip Chip Resistor
An unencapsulated resistor chip on which bead-type leads terminate on one face to permit “flip” (face down) mounting of the resistor chip by contact of the leads with interconnective circuitry.


Frequency
The number of cycles per unit of time of a reoccurring event, wave or oscillation. Usually measured in cycles per second, known as Hertz.


Hot-Spot Temperature
The maximum temperature measured on the resistor due to both internal heating and the ambient operating temperature.

Resistor Glossary: I ~ O

Impedance
The resistance to the flow of current (represented by an electrical network of combined resistance, capacitance, and inductance reaction) in a conductor as seen by an AC source of varying time voltage measured in ohms (Ω).


Inductance
The property of a wirewound resistor that causes voltage to be set up because of a change in current through the device.


Insulation Resistance
The DC resistance measured between all terminals connected together and the case, exterior insulation, or external hardware.


Insulator
A material along which an electrical charge (current flow) cannot readily pass. Used to keep conductors apart or to prevent the escape of electricity.


Linearity
The relationship of actual electrical output to the theoretical output when the theoretical output is a straight-line function.


Low Profile
Components designed with “lower than standard heights,” to save space and allow clearance when mounted on PCBs.


Maximum Overload Voltage
Specifications given herein may be changed at any time without prior notice. Please confirm technical specifications before you order and/or use. The maximum value of voltage capable of being applied to resistors for five seconds in the overload test (JIS C 5201-1 4.13). Typically the applied voltage in the short time overload test shall be 2.5 times larger than the rated voltage. However, it shall not exceed the maximum overload voltage.


Maximum Working Voltage
The maximum value of D.C. voltage or A.C. voltage (commercial frequency effective value) capable of being applied continuously to resistors or element. However, the maximum value of the applicable voltage is the rated voltage at the critical resistance value or lower.


Megohm (MΩ)
One million ohms.


Metallization
A film pattern (single or multilayer) of conductive material deposited on a substrate to interconnect electronic components, or the metal film on the bonding area of a substrate which becomes a part of the bond and performs both an electrical and a mechanical function.


Ohm’s Law
The formula used to determine the three basic building blocks of a circuit:
volts (V), current in amps (I), resistance in ohms (R); V = I x R.


Output
The voltage, current, or power developed by a circuit in response to an input.

Resistor Glossary: P~ R

PPM
Parts per million. The terminology used when describing the temperature coefficient.


Passive Components
Components such as capacitors and resistors, which have no gain characteristics.


Paste/Ink
Screenable, thick film material composed of metals, oxides, and glasses in an organic vehicle which when fired, produces a circuit element such as a resistor or conductor.


Rated Ambient Temperature
The maximum ambient temperature at which resistors are capable of being used continuously with the prescribed rated load (power). The rated ambient temperature refers to the temperature around the resistors inside the equipment, not to the air- temperature outside the equipment.


Rated Power
The maximum value of power, which can be continuously loaded to a resistor at a rated ambient temperature. Please confirm beforehand that there is such a case in a network that rated power per package as well as per element is specified.


Rated Voltage
The maximum value of D.C. voltage or A.C. voltage (commercial frequency effective value) capable of being applied continuously to resistors at the rated ambient temperature. Rated voltage shall be calculated from the following formula. However, it shall not exceed the maximum working voltage.
Rated Voltage (V) = √Rated Power (W) × Nominal Resistance Value(Ω)


Reactance
Opposition to the flow of alternating current offered by capacitance, inductance or both. Both reactances are measured in ohms, and symbolized by the variable x.


Resistance (unit Ohm, Ω)
A specific property of a material depends on its molecular structure, size and temperature and in a circuit, acts to oppose an applied voltage and limit the current flowing into the circuit. Resistance is measured in ohms.


Resistive Products
A broader term that describes components whose primary function is to introduce resistance into the circuit.


Resistor Element
A continuous, unbroken length of resistive material without joints, bonds or welds except at the junction of the element and the electrical terminals connected to each end of the element, or at an intermediate point.


Resistor
A basic component that introduces resistance in electrical and electronic circuits.


Resistor Tolerance
The permissible deviation of the manufactured resistance value (expressed in percent) from the specified nominal resistance value at standard (or stated) environmental conditions.

Resistor Glossary: S ~ Z

Screen Print
The process of printing a network pattern of thick-film ink or paste onto a substrate by means of a squeegee applied to a photo-etched wire-mesh “silk screen” or metal mask.


SMT/SMD
Surface-mount technology/surface-mount device.


Stability
The overall ability of a resistor to maintain its initial resistance value over extended periods of time, when subjected to any combination of environmental conditions and electrical stresses.


Standard Resistance Value
The resistance value tabulated by a decade chart is specified in the applicable military specification. Resistance values not listed in the chart for the appropriate tolerances are considered as non-standard for that specification.


Surface Mount
See SMT/SMD.


Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR)
The rate of change in resistance value per 1°C in the prescribed temperature within the range of resistors operating temperature shall be expressed in the following formula:
T.C.R. (ppm/°C) =(R-Ro)/Ro × 1/(T-To) × 106
R: Measured resistance(Ω) at T °C
Ro: Measured resistance(Ω) at To °C
T: Measured test temperature(°C)
To: Measured base temperature(°C)


Tolerance
Usually applies to the extent from which the actual resistance reading may vary from the rated resistance value when it is actually tested.


Tracking
The inherent capability of resistors from the same formulation and screened onto the same substrate to exhibit similar performance characteristics (e.g., drift, TCR).


Voltage (unit Volt, V)
The electromotive force trying to move electrons from negative to positive; the “pressure” in the circuit.


Watt (W)
Practical unit of electrical power. One watt is the power delivered when a current of one ampere is driven by one volt.


Wirewound Resistor
A resistor in which the resistance element is a length of high-resistivity wire or ribbon, wound onto an insulating core, then encapsulated in a vitreous enamel, silicone or cement compound.


Zero Ohm Resistors
Products that look like resistors, but actually have no resistance and instead perform as jumpers.


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